Chronology of Important Events in Nepal

Chronology of Important Events in Nepal



C. 700-800 B.C.

Kirats arrive from the East. King Yalambar is mentioned in the Hindu epic Mahabharata (28 Kirati rulers ruled Kathmandu)

C. 563 B.C.

Prince Siddhartha Gautam (Lord Buddha) born in Lumbini; He came to Kathmandu during the rule of the 7th Kirati ruler

C. 300 A.D.

Decline of the Kiratis

C. 400 A.D.

Licchavis from North India invaded Nepal and overthrew the Kiratis

602 A.D

Thakuri nobleman Amshuverma, son-in-law of one of the Lichhavi Kings, takes over the throne

750-1200 A.D.

“Transitional” kingdom in power in Kathmandu Valley- Thakuri rulers. King Gunakamadeva establishes the Kathmandu City around 10th Century

1100 A.D.

Khasa Mall kings rule in western Nepal

1200-16 A.D.

Ari Malla, first monarch of the Malla Dynasty, rules in Kathmandu Valley.

1312 A.D.

Khasa King Ripu Malla leads raid in Kathmandu Valley

1345-46 A.D.

Sultan Shams ud-din Ilyas of Bengal plunders Kathmandu Valley.

1382-95 A.D.

Jayasthiti Malla rules as king of a unified Malla kingdom in Kathmandu Valley.

1428-82 A.D.

Yaksha Malla reigns – Golden era of Malla kingdom.

1484 A.D.

Malla kingdom divided; three kingdoms of Kathmandu, Bhadgaon, and Patan established.

1559 A.D.

Gorkha kindgom established by Dravya Shah.

1606-33 A.D.

Ram Shah of Gorkha reigns- conquests begin as Gorkha kings focus on expansion.

1743 A.D.

Prithvi Narayan Shah ascends to throne of Gorkha.

1768-90 A.D.

Gorkha conquers Kathmandu and Patan, Bhadgaon, eastern Nepal, and western Nepal.

1775 A.D.

Prithvi Narayan Shah, the first king of unified Nepal dies.

1788-1791 A.D.

Prithvi Narayan Shah’s successors expand the territory of Nepal as far as Sikkim in India and invade the Tashilhunpo Monastery in Shigatse, Tibet

C. 1800 A.D.

Shah kings fail to maintain political control over the expanded territory

1814-1816 A.D.

Anglo-Nepalese War results in ‘Treaty of Sagauli’ reducing the territory of Nepal to a great extent.

1846 A.D.

Jang Bahadur Rana takes over as prime minister and establishes hereditary Rana rule. Shah kings reduced to figureheads.

1846 to 1951 A.D.

Ranas run a tyrannical government.

1946 A.D.

Beginning of formation of political parties against the Rana rulers

1947 A.D.

The United States establishes diplomatic relations with Nepal.

1948 A.D.

The country’s first constitution, The Legal Act of Nepal Government, is promulgated. Prime Minister Padma Shamsher Rana resigns in the wake of opposition to the new constitution from conservative Ranas. Mohan Shamsher becomes Prime Minister- constitution is suspended.

1950 A.D.

Conflict among the Rana rulers. King Tribhuvan supports the conspiracy against Ranas, led by parties like Praja Parishad and Nepali Congress. King Tribhuwan seeks and is granted asylum in India.
Treaty of Peace and Friendship and Treaty of Trade and Commerce are signed with India.

1951 A.D.

Prime Minister Mohan Shamsher Rana steps down. King Tribhuvan is restored to the throne. Mohan Shamsher heads new coalition cabinet for 10 months. He is succeeded by Nepali Congress Party leader Matrika Prasad Koirala as prime minister. Democracy makes its advent in Nepal.

1952 A.D.

Koirala resigns; king assumes direct rule.

1953 A.D.

Koirala is recalled as prime minister.

1955 A.D.

King Tribhuvan dies and is succeeded by Mahendra.
Nepal joins the United Nations.
National Police Force is formed.
Koirala resigns- Mahendra assumes direct control.

1956 A.D.

Tanka Prasad Acharya is named Prime Minister.
Border treaty with China concluded.

1957 A.D.

T.P. Acharya resigns.

K.I. Singh becomes Prime Minister for a few months.

1958 A.D.

USSR opens an embassy at Kathmandu.
Subarna Shamsher is named new Prime Minister.

1959 A.D

First general elections are held, in which; Nepal Congress Party wins with an absolute majority.
United States opens an embassy at Kathmandu.
New constitution is promulgated, superseding Constitution of 1951.
Nepal’s first University, Tribhuvan University founded.

1960 A.D.

B.P. Koirala heads first popular government; Koirala’s policies are opposed by the king, and Koirala is abruptly dismissed; all political parties are banned; the king takes over direct control of government; Treaty of Peace and Friendship with China is concluded.

1961 A.D.

King Mahendra proclaims “guided democracy”.
Boundary treaty with China renewed.

1962 A.D.

New constitution, third since 1951 is introduced, which, establishes Partyless-panchayat system.
Land Reorganization Act and Muluki Ain, new legal code, are promulgated.
Anti-India riots erupt in Kathmandu over Indian aid to dissidents.

1963 A.D.

Panchayat elections begin.
National Guidance Council is formed
Tulsi Giri is named prime minister.

1965 A.D.

Local government reorganized.
Tulsi Giri resigns and Surya Bahadur Thapa is appointed Prime Minister.

1969 A.D.

Thapa yields office to Kirti Nidhi Bista.
Indian military mission withdrawn.

1971 A.D.

New trade and transit treaty negotiated with India.

1972 A.D.

King Mahendra dies and is succeeded by King Birendra. Development regions are established under National Development Council.

1975 A.D.

Tulsi Giri is appointed prime minister.
King Birendra is crowned.
Gaun Pharka Rastriya Abhiyan- “Go to the Village” campaign is launched.

1976 A.D.

B.P. Koirala returns from India and is arrested.
Treaty with India expires and is not renewed.

1977 A.D.

Tulsi Giri resigns as Prime Minister in the wake of corruption charges; former prime minister Kirti Nidhi Bista is reinstated as prime minister.

1979 A.D.

Following nationwide demonstrations by students, Bista is replaced as Prime Minister by Surya Bahadur Thapa.
King announces referendum to choose between the reformed Panchayat system and multiparty democracy.

1980 A.D.

In national referendum people vote for continuance of the Panchayat form of government and against the reintroduction of political parties.

1982 A.D.

B.P. Koirala, Nepali Congress Party leader dies.

1983 A.D.

Prime Minister Surya Bahadur Thapa is defeated in the Rastriya Panchayat election and is replaced by Lokendra Bahadur Chand.

1986 A.D.

Second elections to Rastriya Panchayat held; Marich Man Singh Shrestha becomes Prime Minister.

1989 A.D.

Failure to renegotiate trade and transit treaties with India disrupts economy.

1990 A.D.

Demonstrations held for the restoration of democracy, led by Nepali Congress and supported by different communist parties.
Panchayat system is dissolved; interim government made up of various parties and king’s representatives formed.
New constitution promulgated.

1991 A.D.

Elections to Parliament held.
Nepali Congress wins a narrow majority; G.P. Koirala becomes Prime Minister.
President of Nepali Congress and interim Prime Minister, K.P. Bhattarai, defeated in the polls by the leader of CPN-UML, Madan Bhandari.

1992 A.D.

Local elections held; Nepali Congress wins a majority of the seats.

1993 A.D.

Madan Bhandari killed in a mysterious car crash. Violent demonstrations by communists to overthrow Koirala’s government.

1994 A.D.

Prime minister Koirala resigns and calls for new elections after losing a parliamentary vote, due to the abstention of 36 members of his own party.
New elections in November results in a hung parliament. CPN-UML, which emerged as the single largest party, forms a minority government.

1995 A.D.

The minority government of CPN-UML loses power in a parliamentary vote of no-confidence.
A coalition government of Nepali Congress, RPP and Sadhvabana is formed.

Feb 1996 A.D.

Maoist rebels launch insurgency aimed at replacing constitutional monarchy with one-party communist republic.

1997 A.D.

The NC-RPP coalition government loses power resulting in a UML-RPP coalition.
This government itself loses power six months later to another NC-RPP coalition.
Ganesh Man Singh, who led the 1990 democracy movement dies.

1999 A.D.

The third general elections after restoration of democracy results in Nepali Congress coming back to power with an absolute majority in the House.
Krishna P. Bhattarai becomes Prime Minister for the second time.

March, 2000 A.D.

K.P. Bhattarai resigns due to conflict within Nepali Congress and controversy over security, as a result of Maoist insurgency. Girija Prasad Koirala becomes Prime Minister.

June 2001 A.D.

King Birendra, Queen Aishwarya and other royal family members are killed in shooting rampage by Crown Prince Dipendra, who then shoots himself. Gyanendra crowned King.

July 2001 A.D.

Maoist rebels step up violence. Girija Prasad Koirala steps down as PM over controversy of deploying Royal Nepal Army against the Maosits. Sher Bahadur Deuba becomes prime minister, heading 11th government in 11 year since the restoration of democracy. PM Deuba announces truce for peace talks. Bilateral ceasefire in place.

Nov 2001 A.D.

Maoists say talks have failed and that truce is no longer justified. They launch attack on army barrack in Dang. Army deployed against Maoists. Government declares state of emergency and tags Maoists as a “Terrorist organization.”

Oct 2002 A.D.

King Gyanendra sacks Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba, alleging him of being incompetent to conduct election. King assumes executive power. Lokendra Bahadur Chand is named Prime Minister.

May 2003 A.D.

PM Chand resigns after months of protests led by political parties demanding restoration of parliament and appointment of ‘people’s representatives’.

June 2004 A.D.

King Gyanendra appoints Surya Bahadur Thapa as Prime Minister.

May 2005 A.D.

Surya Bahadur Thapa quits as prime minister after weeks of protests. Peace talks with Maoists fail, leading to a political deadlock.

June 2005 A.D.

Gyanendra reappoints Sher Bahadur Deuba as Prime Minister. Some other political parties like the UML also join the Deuba government.

Feb 1, 2005 A.D.

King Gyanendra sacks government, assumes absolute power. Declares himself the Chairman of the Council of Ministers. State of emergency announced.

Nov 2005 A.D.

7 main political party leaders strike a 12-point understanding with the Maoist rebels in India. They form a consensus on overthrowing the King’s “autocratic rule” and put an end to Maoist war.

April 2006 A.D.

People’s movement for restoration of Democracy, led by the 7 Party Alliance, supported by the Maoists. 19 days of street protests by the people forces King Gyanendra to relinquish powers and restore parliament and Girija Prasad Koirala is unanimously nominated Prime Minister.

May 2006 A.D.

King is stripped of powers. Removed from his position of Supreme Commander of the Army. Prime Minister assumes the position of the Head of State. Nepal is declared a secular nation.

Nov 2006 A.D.

Maoists sign a Comprehensive Peace Accord with the government, agreeing to put an end to their decade-long insurgency. They agree to confine their army to cantonments, under the supervision of the UN and proceed toward their reintegration.

Jan 2007 A.D.

Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2006 is drafted. Maoists join the parliament. Date for Constituent Assembly election is fixed for June 2007.

Feb 2007 A.D.

Movement demanding federal structure begins in the Terai, leading to first amendment of the interim constitution.

March 2007 A.D.

Interim Constitution undergoes 1st amendment.
Maoists join the government.

May 2007 A.D.

Election Commission says time for election preparations insufficient. Election postponed to November 22, 2007.

Sept 2007 A.D.

Maoists walk out of the government, demanding fully proportional election and declaration of Nepal as a republic.

Oct 2007 A.D.

Constituent Assembly Election suspended for the second time due to Maoist demands for a fully proportional representation and immediate declaration of a republic in Nepal.

Dec 2007 A.D.


The total strength of the Interim Parliament is 328.

But out of them, 9 have resigned recently, which makes it:

  • Nepali Congress- 128 (133- 5)
  • CPN-UML- 83
  • CPN-Maoists-84
  • Rastriya Prajatantra Party- 7 (9-2)
  • Nepal Sadbhavna Party (Anandi Devi)-3 (5-2)
  • Janamorcha Nepal- 4
  • Nepal Workers and Peasants Party- 4
  • Rastriya Janamorcha-3
  • Communist Party of Nepal- Unified-2
  • United Left Front- 2
  • Rastriya Janashakti Party- 1

Jan 11, 2008 A.D.

Constituent Assembly election date announced for April 10, 2008.

April 10, 2008 A.D.

Constituent Assembly Election held, from which Maoist raise as the biggest Party of the country winning 220 seats out of 601 C.A, members.

May 28, 2008 A.D.

The newly elected Constituent Assembly declared Nepal a Federal Democratic Republic, abolishing the 240 years old monarchy. The motion for abolition of monarchy was carried by a huge majority; out of 564 members present in the assembly, 560 voted for the motion while 4 members voted against it.

June 11, 2008 A.D.

Ex-king Gyanendra Shah left the Royal palace and Palace is new museum.

August 15, 2008 A.D.

Maoist Chief, Pushpa Kamal Dahal Prachanda, elected first Prime Minister of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal. He was sworn in on August 18, 2008.

Source : Internet

One Response

  1. true… not sure who said this, but it still rings true: A government, for protecting business only, is but a carcass, and soon falls by its own corruption and decay.

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